Root canal treatment (also referred to as root canal therapy or endodontic therapy) is made necessary when a cavity is allowed, through neglect, to reach all the way to pulp. (Regular cleanings & checkups prevent and detect problems early) Sometimes deep restorations or trauma to a tooth may cause the nerve to be damaged through the root tip and begin to eat a way at the surrounding bone (this is an abscess). By the time the pup is infected it must be treated, and cannot heal on its own. It can even weaken the entire immune system. This is dangerous, not to mention very painful. Symptoms that the pulp has become infected may include sensitivity to holt/cold or sweets, pain, swelling, pain to biting or pressure, and a bad case in the mouth. Sometimes, however, no symptoms are apparent and the person is unaware of any problem until a checkup.
A root canal is then performed to clean out the infected tooth pulp, and disinfect the canals of the tooth. The only other treatment would be to extract the tooth. Once the infection is resolved, the canal(s) are filled in to prevent any further infection. Usually a core build-up and crown is recommended for restoring a tooth that has had root canal therapy.